Assignment: NRS 434 Adolescence: Contemporary Issues and Resources

Assignment NRS 434 Adolescence Contemporary Issues and Resources SAMPLE 1

Assignment: NRS 434 Adolescence: Contemporary Issues and Resources

Adolescents face a range of issues today, which are not only complex and require effective interventions from stakeholders, especially mental health. More teens are suffering from depression due to a host of factors that include peer influence, substance use and abuse, and even eating disorders like anorexia nervosa. As such, this essay discusses depression as a facing adolescents and their effects on their behavior.

Depression Among Adolescents

Adolescent depression is a critical and concern. The association illustrates that close to 11 percent of youth encounter depression, and these events are linked to downstream negative results later in adolescence and even in adulthood (Auerbach, 2015). The most alarming aspect of depression among adolescents is that close three-quarters who experience it may attempt suicide in adulthood.

Depression among adolescents affects how they think, feel, and behave, leading to emotional, functional, and physical problems. While depression can occur at any moment in life, symptoms may differ between adolescents and adults (Rice et al., 2017). Signs and symptoms of depression among adolescents comprise changes in behavior and attitude that may cause significant distress and problems at home or school and social activities. Emotional changes may include feelings of sadness and frustrations and anger, feeling hopeless and empty, and being irritable or moody. Some may lose interest in and be in conflict with friends and have low self-esteem and experience worthlessness or guilt. In some instances, adolescents may contemplate suicidal thoughts.

Behavioral changes may include loss of energy and insomnia, as well as changes in appetite and use of drugs, among other substances. Social isolation and self-harm may also manifest alongside angry outbursts (Bernaras et al., 2019). Parents should understand the symptoms and signs of depression and seek relevant interventions through counseling and other therapies since depression is treatable.

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External Stressors Linked to Adolescent Depression

A range of external stressors exacerbates depression among adolescents. For instance, adolescents experience depression when they fail to live to their expectations in their academic work, social presence, unhealthy lifestyles, peer pressure, and social media. Firstly, adolescents are frequently under pressure to excel academically to attain good grades by their parents and join reputable colleges and universities. Studies indicate that adolescents have poor time management skills that make it difficult for many to excel academically (Bernaras et al., 2019). The failure to excel in academics causes heightened stress levels. Secondly, external stress from conformity to social life and peer pressure exacerbates depression as teenagers want to make friends and social presence through different platforms, especially increased use of social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat, among others (Auerbach, 2015). Teenagers may also find it difficult to maintain different social relationships because of a lack of effort and even social skills. Unhealthy lifestyle habits, like eating disorders, also lead to depression. Staying awake at night and consumption of unhealthy fast foods are building blocks of stress and depression.

Assessment Strategies to Screen Depression

The assessment strategies to screen depression are based on accepted and recommended tools that include the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-5) developed by the American Psychology Association (APA). Using the criteria in DSM-5, practitioners can assess symptoms and signs of depression among teenagers. Further, the American Medical Association’s Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GPS) recommend that primary providers should start screening depression at age 11 and continue each year after that (Bernaras et al., 2019). Again, professional organizations recommend that adolescents aged 12 to 18 years be screened for major depressive disorders.

Lack of resources, external stressors can impact the assessment strategies for the screening of adolescent depression. Studies show that close to 65% of adolescents with depression do not access critical services and resources to help treat their condition (Rice et al., 2017). The deployment of assessment strategies requires increased investment in mental health targeted to adolescents.

Additional Assessment Questions & Ethical Parameters

Assessment questionnaires are the most significant step in determining how depression taints adolescent mental health. Depression can lead to suicide and other adverse health effects. Depression has various signs, as mentioned. Additional assessment questions entail asking the role of parents and guardians in identifying and recognizing depression symptoms and reporting to the appropriate agencies. Ethical parameters on what to share with parents and guardians entail ensuring that the affected adolescents are not exposed since they are minors (Auerbach, 2015). Secondly, ethical issues may include the need to uphold the impacted adolescents’ privacy and confidentiality to provide adequate care.

Support Options

Adolescents experiencing depression have different support options, from family support to community and institutional-based support from mental health facilities. Having supportive friends is essential in encountering adolescents’ external stressors with depression (Zuckerbrot et al., 2018). Support options are also available through professional resources, which can help the adolescent cope with depression. Caregivers and parents who seek professional assistance from mental health experts like psychiatrists should understand that adolescents have the right to ensure that their information is not disclosed (Rice et al., 2017). Depressed adolescents can also find support systems through their communities, especially if they run mental health programs.


Knowledge of contemporary issues that impact adolescents is essential and offers immense benefits for the youth, especially the physical and emotional aspects. It is essential to offer support during this critical stage as adolescents make the transition to adults. The transition can have several external stressors that may impact the mental health of adolescents. Therefore, using assessment tools and observation and external resources can be useful in providing an outlet for adolescents to deal with depression.


Auerbach, R. A. (2015). Depression in adolescents: Causes, correlates, and consequences.

American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved from

Bernaras, E., Jaureguiza, J. & Garaigordobil, M. (2019). Child and Adolescent Depression: A

Review of Theories, Evaluation Instruments, Prevention Programs, and Treatments. Frontier Psychology.

Rice, F., Eyre, O., Riglin, L. & Potter, R. (2017). Adolescent depression and treatment gap. The

Lancet Psychiatry, 4(2): 86-87.

Zuckerbrot, R. A., Cheung, A., Jensen, P. S., Stein, R. E. K., & Laraque, D. (2018).  Guidelines

for Adolescent Depression in Primary Care (GLAD-PC): Part I. Practice Preparation, Identification, Assessment, and Initial Management. Pediatrics, 141(3) e20174081; DOI:



Replies to Latasha Brooks

According to Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC), child abuse and neglect is any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent, caregiver or another person in custodial role that results in harm, potential for harm or threat of harm to a child and it is preventable. Child abuse can occur in any age group usually the abusers are the nearest and dearest. Neglect, emotional, sexual and medical abuse are some of the abuses faced by infants. This age group is very prone to abuse because it is still very young and solely depends on the parents or caregiver and can not voice their concerns. Abusive head trauma , also known as Shaken head syndrome (SHS), is the worst form of abuse experienced by this population when a caregiver shakes the infant. The baby may experience trauma due to direct blow, when thrown to the ground or surfaces. This results in severe brain and neck injuries that may be irreversible and possibly death. Upon examination of the infant, lethargy or decreased muscle tone, poor feeding/suckling or vomiting for no cause, decreased level of consciousness or seizures are all cues to Abusive Head Trauma just to mention a few (Green S.Z,2018).

Several cultures today use folk remedies to treat various ailments. Moxibustion is the burning of rolled pieces of moxa herb (mugwort or Artemisia vulgaris) over the skin above acupuncture points and burns till start to feel pain. This is an Asian cultural practice for a variety of symptoms like fever and abdominal pain. The lesions from moxibustion look like a pattern of discrete, circular, target-like burns that maybe mistaken with cigarette burns from child abuse.

It is the nurses` duty to report any form of suspected child abuse. They are mandated reporters and should not assume that their colleagues will do the reporting. The supervisor is informed of any suspected case and law enforcement agents are engaged as well as the local county Department of Social Services: Child protection services.


Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention

Green S.Z. (2018) Health Assessment: Foundation For Effective Practice


Cultural Practices-Suspected Child Abuse


  • MG


I agree that Children in the age group of birth to 1 year had the highest rate of victimization at 25.7 per 1,000 children of the same age in the national population. Most victims were from three races or ethnicities:6 White (43.5 percent), Hispanic (23.5 percent), and African American (20.9 percent). American Indian or Alaska Native children had the highest rates of victimization at 14.8 per 1,000 children in the population of the same race or ethnicity, and African American children had the second- highest rate at 13.8 per 1,000 children of the same race or ethnicity. Boys had a slightly higher child fatality rate than girls. The majority of children who died from maltreatment were one of three races or ethnicities8: White ,African-American or Hispanic .

Contemporary Issues and Resources SAMPLE 2

Many teenagers face diverse issues as a result of modern technology. These issues have been on the rise with teenagers because of the trigger they get from social media. The escalating level of communication has changed the way teens pass information from one person to the next (Ariani et al., 2018). Besides, the availability of digital devices has heightened online communication among teens at a reduced cost. Increased use of online communication has reduced face-to-face interaction among teens, further affecting their interpersonal communication abilities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the internet issue as a contemporary issue and expound on its effect on adolescent behavior and overall well-being.

Description of the Contemporary Issue

One of the main current issues affecting teens is internet addiction. The time spent by teens on social media sites is more than the time that these teens can participate in a family conversation. Indeed, this kind of addiction has been a concern, and it has been the point of discussion among many authors. The external stressors to this issue have been fueling its effect among teens (King et al., 2020).The increased online interaction is affecting the behavior of many teens because they are moved by peer pressure to adopt the social life they see from others on social media. This issue has been escalating each year, resulting because of the ever-advancing social media technology. The increased internet addiction also affects the relationship between teens and their parents, who should be acting as their role models. The busy work schedules of parents are a factor promoting internet use among teens because they lack proper guidance from their parents.

Assessment Strategies for Screening

External stressors that fuel internet addiction include high expectations from parents, peer pressure, dynamics within the family, and social influence. Other examples of external stressors include expected future goals and fear of missing out. Despite each external stressor’s effect on teenagers, peer pressure has a leading effect among the teens (Ariani et al., 2018). Teenagers tend to copy acts they see from their fellow teenagers on an online platform. The fear of being left out compels them to copy the acts they depicted from their friends. They would always compare their profiles with their friends on Facebook or do anything they see their friends doing on Facebook, Instagram, or even TikTok. They feel the pressure of copying the acts on these social sites as they feel that the right way they can be recognized in the online community.

Increased expectations from the parents are another external stressor that erodes teens’ behavior. It makes the adolescents become stressed; hence look for an alternative to relieve the stress. Using the internet is one of the best options for gathering information around them. Empirical studies have also revealed that the dynamics within the family also increase the rate at which teens use the internet. For instance, in a family where both parents are busy with less family time for their children, the children would adopt the internet for games and passing the time (Ariani et al., 2018). When teens lack the required parental support, they tend to be easily addicted to various things, including internet surfing.

Scientists have developed various tools that aid in assessing internet addiction among teens. These tools include the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS), Game Addiction Scale (GAS), Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) (Ariani et al., 2018). The data collected from these tools aid in examining the level of effect that the internet has on teens. These tools have increased accuracy, allowing scholars to find accurate assessments of these teens and locate accurate data for their studies.

Additional Assessment Questions

  • When using the internet, do you feel disturbed by the productive hours you have spent online?
  • What are some of the efforts you have in place to reduce your time on an internet-connected device?
  • Do you use the internet to feel better when undergoing stress or anxiety?

These assessment questions are significant in examining the individual effect that internet addition has on a teenager (David et al., 2018). Besides, these questions are important in having a general perception of teenagers on the issue of internet addiction.

Support Options

The teens need various support options to ensure that the addition does not affect their lives negatively. For instance, cognitive-behavioral therapy is one of the best support options for teens. The therapy aids teens in making correct judgments and limiting their ability to copy strange behaviors from social media (David et al., 2018). Promoting physical interaction among the teens allows the teens to have a true picture of their friends. Besides, the information shared among the teens would enable them to feel that they are on the right course of life. All these measures gear towards transforming behavior positively.


Internet addiction is an increasing concern in society due to its increased effect on teens. Teens are addicted to the internet because they find comfort; they enjoy playing games, streaming videos online, and literature sources for the study. Teenagers would always have divided attention because most of their time is dedicated to watching movies and chatting on various social media apps. These issues could be solved by developing a strong support system for teenagers.


Ariani, P., Suryani, S., & Hernawaty, T. (2018). Relationship between academic stress, family and peer attachment with internet addiction in adolescents. Jurnal Keperawatan Padjadjaran6(3).

David, D., Cristea, I., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Why cognitive behavioral therapy is the current gold standard of psychotherapy. Frontiers in psychiatry9, 4.

King, D. L., Billieux, J., Carragher, N., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2020). Face validity evaluation of screening tools for gaming disorder: Scope, language, and overpathologizing issues. Journal of behavioral addictions9(1), 1-13.

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