DNP 801 Topic 5 DQ 1 

DNP 801 Topic 5 DQ 1

In your own words, describe personal and and explain why is one of the main reasons for poor validity in research outcomes. How could a (DPI Project) be affected if the research used had bias? How would the site be affected? Using one of the primary research articles you selected for you PICOT-D, discuss potential bias that could have occurred and how this affects the research outcomes and ultimately the validity of the studies. Is it still viable research for your DPI Project?


is any trend or deviation from the truth in data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and publication that can cause false conclusions. Bias can occur either intentionally or unintentionally. Intention to introduce bias into someone’s research is not moral. Nevertheless, considering the possible consequences of biased research, it is almost equally irresponsible to conduct and publish biased research unintentionally (Gardenier JS, Resnik DB, 2019). Bias distorts the truth, it interferes with the ability to truly understand the environments around us. It is the most challenging obstacle for researchers. It is worth pointing out that every study has its confounding variables and limitations. Confounding effects cannot be completely avoided. While Personal bias happens when the research results are altered due to personal beliefs, customs, attitudes, culture, and errors among many other factors. It also means that the researcher must have analyzed the research data based on his/her beliefs rather than the views perceived by the respondents (Scott K, McSherry R, 2019) In research studies having a well-designed research protocol explicitly outlining data collection and analysis can assist in . Feasibility studies are often undertaken to refine protocols and procedures. Bias can be reduced by maximizing follow up and where appropriate in randomized control trials analysis should be based on the intention to treat principle, a strategy that assesses clinical effectiveness because not everyone complies with treatment and the treatment people receive may be changed according to how they respond. has been criticized for lacking transparency in relation to the analytical processes employed (Smith, J., & Noble, H. 2018).

A quality improvement DPI project could be affected or reduced by the random selection of participants since I am using a clinic setting and in the case of clinical trials randomization of participants into comparison groups. Also, some participants might withdraw from the study or be lost due to failed follow-up. This can result in sample bias or change the characteristics of participants in comparison groups.  In qualitative research purposeful sampling has advantages when compared to convenience sampling in that bias is reduced because the sample is constantly refined to meet the study aims. Premature closure of the selection of participants before analysis is complete can threaten the validity of a qualitative study. This can be overcome by continuing to recruit new participants into the study during data analysis until no new information emerges, known as data saturation.

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Gardenier JS, Resnik DB. The misuse of statistics: concepts, tools, and a research agenda. Account Res. 2019;9:65–74. . [] []

Scott K, McSherry R. Evidence-based nursing: clarifying the concepts for nurses in practice. Nursing in Critical Care, 2019: 3; 67-71 p 1089.

Smith, J., & Noble, H. (2018). Bias in research. Evidence-Based Nursing, 17(4), 100-101.

Great posting Elsie. Bias distorts the significance of the findings in the study in a systematic way which most times arises from the design method used. So, the researcher needs to be focused and alert because research can be introduced at any time in the study and also be aware of the different sources of possible bias. Sources like selection bias can affect who is placed in a particular group. This selection bias is reduced when researchers use random selection to place participants in groups (Melnyk, & Fineout-Overholt, 2018). Another source of bias is when the researcher knows who receives what intervention especially in randomized control trials. To minimize the bias reported from the author the authors should not be aware, it is called double blinded or triple blinded-when the person administering the intervention is not aware of who is in what group (Melnyk, & Fineout-Overholt, 2018). There are biases due to not following up with the participants especially when they drop out and not reporting it as such. There is also contamination bias. This is when the participants in the control group are exposed to the intervention of the experimental group (Melnyk, & Fineout-Overholt, 2018). There are also the cross-cultural measurement invariances that occur from with different cultural languages leading to culture bias, translation bias and comprehension bias. All these three are intertwined because there could be different cultural groups hence the culture, comprehension, and translation bias (CCT) procedure tools are used to minimize the bias. This allows for the dissociation of the three cultural biases (Bader, Jobst, Zettler, Hilbig, & Moshagen, 2021).


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.

Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.

One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.

I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.

In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.

Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).

Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).

Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.

I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.

As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.

It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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