Professional Roles Task 1 Professional Accountability Essay

Professional Roles Task 1 Professional Accountability Essay


Professional Accountability

The clinical workplace presents a challenge to nursing practice given its diversity. This necessitates a collective responsibility to positively change the working environment. One such responsibility is professional accountability. According to Chesterton et al. (2021), professional accountability constitutes the ideal standards of nursing practice. Nurses are generally chargeable for their activities under civil, criminal, and contract law to their; regulatory body, employing organization, and the patients they care for. This assignment seeks to develop a working knowledge of nursing theory, nursing ethics, and professional accountability and elaborate the implications of these concepts to nursing clinical practice.

Identify a nursing theory that has influenced your values and goals

Nurse theory-guided practice plays a crucial role in improving the quality of care by influencing nursing care values and goals. One such theory is Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Caring forms the fundamental of nursing practice. According to this model, nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick, and restoring health (Alligood, 2021). Watson identified four metaparadigm concepts in nursing the human being, health, nursing, and environment as well as the ten carative factors that are critical to the caring human experience.

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Nurses can apply Jean Watson’s theory of human caring to implement excellent nursing practices via several approaches. Firstly, nurses can practice holistic care by caring for and caring about their clients. The holistic nursing approach has been strongly correlated with immense patient satisfaction and improvement in patient care (Alligood, 2021). Nurses should not only be concerned with patients’ healthcare needs but also personal, social, psychological, and spiritual needs. Similarly, this model of Human caring views caring as an art and science. Subsequently, nurses should apply their expertise, scientific knowledge, and experience acquired through nursing education to advance caring attributes and their professional lives. Caring is central to patients’ experience and satisfaction and when practiced and demonstrated by nurses, it promotes growth, protection, enhancement, and preservation of human dignity.

Jean Watson’s Theory of Human caring fits into the nursing profession in several ways. Most importantly, the theory forms the basis of the nursing profession as caring is a core value of nursing practice. Caring is elemental in nursing practice as it promotes health beyond a pure medical cure. As a result, most nursing institutions globally have adopted the theory to form the foundation of their nursing education (Alligood, 2021). Furthermore, the carative factors devised by Watson are core to clinical nursing care. They significantly enhance nurse-patient relationships, human dignity, patient care, and ultimately patient satisfaction. Finally, the theory encourages nurses to participate in health promotional activities, career advancement, and research to ensure the adoption and implementation of evidence-based nursing practice.

Identify the contributions of two historical nursing figures in the nineteenth or twentieth century

The field of nursing is well known for its historical nursing figures, especially over the past two centuries. For instance, Florence Nightingale and Clara Barton. Florence Nightingale is among the famous nurses and began her work in 1851. She traveled to Turkey to assist the British soldiers during the Crimean war. She cleaned hospitals and attended to the devastated soldiers resulting in the survival of many (MacDonald et al., 2018). Nightingale is largely recognized as the mother of modern nursing. She implemented vital concepts that are the hallmark of modern nursing. These include infection control, self-care, nursing assessment, therapeutic communication, and public health advocacy (MacDonald et al., 2018). On the other hand, Clara Barton abandoned her career as a teacher to deliver medical supplies during the American civil war. She placed her life at risk to provide care and comfort to the wounded confederate soldiers at Field hospitals despite not being a formally trained nurse (MacDonald et al., 2018). Additionally, Clara Barton founded the office of correspondence with Friends of missing soldiers to assist the families in finding their loved ones. As a result, 22 000 missing soldiers were found. Finally, Clara as a humanitarian founded the Red Cross, a topmost humanitarian and disaster aid organization globally.

The contributions of the aforementioned historical nursing figures influence the nursing professional practice in a variety of ways. It is vividly clear that the modern nursing profession is founded based on the core concepts from historical figures such as Florence nightingale. These concepts include nursing assessment, therapeutic communication, infection control, self-care, and public health advocacy. Following their implementation, patient-centered care, as well as the quality of care, is enhanced leading to increased patient safety, satisfaction, and a reduction in mortality rate. Additionally, as nurses, we should follow in the footsteps of our historical figures by caring for the suffering and wounded to preserve human dignity. Similarly, we should come up with and take part in strategies that enhance healthcare outcomes such as disaster aid organizations or infection control practices. Finally, the contributions also highlight the considerable role that nurses play during adverse events through their selfless nature.

Explain the functional differences between the State Board of Nursing and the American Nurses Association (ANA)

The State Board of Nursing is regarded as the state-specific regulatory and licensing body that is tasked with setting the standards of nursing care, issuance of the license to the certified, deciding on the scope of nursing within its dominion, and disciplinary actions for practice violations. Meanwhile, the ANA advances the nursing profession by; advocating for a safe and ethical work environment, ensuring the wellness of nurses, empowering nurses, cultivating high standards of nursing practice, and advocating healthcare issues that influence nurses and the general public.

The State Board of Nursing and the ANA collectively affect the nursing practice in various ways. Firstly, the regulatory bodies oversee the overall functions of the nurses holding nurses answerable for their actions. This is particularly significant in ensuring that nurses practice within their scope with the highest possible standards which lead to quality evidence-based nursing practice. Similarly, nursing career advancement and the future of nursing practice are influenced by the above bodies through their empowerment, licensing, and fighting for the rights of their members. Finally, the bodies ensure the safe delivery of nursing care and proper dispute-solving approaches throughout the profession.

Professional license renewal as an RN in the State of Pennsylvania requires completion of 30 hours of continuing education, 2 contact hours in the area of child abuse recognition and reporting in Pennsylvania, with a renewal period of 2 years. Additionally, an RN renewal fee of $297.00 is charged (Grimes, 2019). Failure to renew the RN license in Pennsylvania results in an expired license. Nurses with expired licenses are presumed not to be practicing and will be expected to sign an affidavit stating whether or not they have been practicing with an expired license during the renewal.

Registered nurse license requirement in a non-compact state requires the application for licensure by endorsement to the respective state board of nursing. Consequently, an individual after fulfilling all the requirements with be issued with a license for practicing in that particular state. On the other hand, the be eligible for an RN license in a compact state, the individual must be a resident of the compact state and declare a compact state as the primary state of residency, and be actively licensed as an RN in addition to meeting all the licensure requirements held by his home state. Subsequently, the individual will be issued with a single multi-state license that will allow him to practice physically, electronically, or telephonically in their state as well as other compact states.

Discuss the functional differences between the Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services

The food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a regulatory body responsible for overseeing drugs, biological products, and medical devices from the premarketing phase to throughout the product’s life cycle. FDA further monitors the effective use and safety of the product following approval alongside facilitation of implantation of advances in the biomedical, product development, and regulatory sciences (Voet, 2020). However, the center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) modulates reimbursement for healthcare products and services for Medicare and Medicaid healthcare programs. Furthermore, CMS facilitates the implementation of science-driven opportunities for management of personal health through affordable, reliable, and targeted care alongside coordination of various aspects of healthcare amongst stakeholders.

Additionally, the above regulatory bodies impact the professional nursing practice. FDA for instance equips nurses with the most recent data on foods and drugs that are safe and provides a solid base for medication selection. The CMS on the other hand impacts nursing practice by limiting the scope of practice of nurses. Similarly, CMS assists nurses to organize coordination within the healthcare facility to prevent preventable complications such as inpatient pressure ulcers through regulations such as limiting payment.

Nurses also play a key role to ensure patients’ concerns are met. For instance, if a patient requests an alternative therapy, nurses link patients to their providers and often present such complaints. Similarly, the nurses through therapeutic communication help the patient to comprehend all the available therapies and enable them to choose the best therapy based on the benefits, affordability, and side effects of the therapy. Consequently, a nurse raises any concern regarding the alternative therapy to the primary healthcare provider and provides a suitable platform for communication until a mutual agreement is reached.

Discuss the purposes of the Nurse Practice Act in your state and its impact on your professional practice

The Pennsylvania Nurse practice act regulates and protects the citizens of Pennsylvania from practitioners who pose a threat to the safety, health, and welfare of the citizens within its jurisdiction (Grimes, 2019). To achieve this core aim, the state board assesses the competence of nurses at initial licensure and throughout their nursing career coupled with regulation of scope of practice of professional and practicing nurses. The scope of practice for RN in Pennsylvania includes; the execution of medical regimens as prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. Diagnosis of medical conditions and implementation of care plans. Additionally, prescription of drugs including schedule II-IV is dependent on a written collaboration agreement with the physician (Grimes, 2019). The above nursing care necessitates specialized knowledge, skill, and judgment extracted from principles of physical, biological, social, behavioral, and nursing sciences.

The Pennsylvania Board of nursing defines delegation as the transfer of responsibility for the performance of a selected nursing task from a licensed nurse authorized to perform the task to an individual who does not have the authority to perform the role (Grimes, 2019). Following delegation of the task, the nurse to whom the task is delegated cannot delegate the task to any other person.

Apply each of the following roles to your professional practice

Nurses play vital roles in their professional practice including a scientist, a detective, and a manager of the healing environment. As a scientist, nurses participate in research activities by identifying research topics, designing and conducting research, collecting, analyzing, and reporting the findings (Cherry & Jacob, 2019). This contributes to the general scientific body of knowledge and forms the basis for healthcare improvement based on evidence-based findings. Nevertheless, nurses are also detectives. The nursing profession faces a multitude of complaints including sexual misconduct, fraud, practice-related, medication errors, criminal conduct, and unprofessional misconduct (Cherry & Jacob, 2019). Nurses participate in solving these issues using their investigative skills such as case development, evidence collection, and admissibility.

Moreover, nurses are managers of the healing environment. In professional practice, nurses undertake this critical role by allowing patient and staff involvement in decision-making to foster holistic therapies (Cherry & Jacob, 2019). This collaboration reduces both staff and patient anxiety and promotes a safe environment that allows healing to occur. Similarly, nurses as managers of healing environments should optimize the environment for healing by eliminating hazards or factors that may aggravate or threaten patient safety and health.

Identify two provisions from the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics

ANA code of ethics comprises nine provisions that provide a nonnegotiable ethical standard that reflects the commitment to society. These provisions affect the nursing profession although this paper will be limited to provisions 1 and 3. Provision 1 encourages nurses to practice with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and unique attributes of every person while provision 3 requires that nurses promote, advocate and protect the right, health, and safety of the patient (Haddad & Geiger, 2021). These provisions are elemental in the nursing profession and impact healthcare outcomes. Nurses while caring for their clients should respect the patients’ privacy and allow them together with their families to decide whether to participate in healthcare. Similarly, nurses are expected to protect the patient by delineating any safety concerns and misconducts. Finally, nurses should not offer patient care under the influence of substance abuse.

Medication errors are among the most common nursing errors encountered in the clinical setting. These preventable events often lead to inappropriate use of medication or patient harm. Nurses can utilize provisions 1 and 3 from the ANA code of ethics to minimize these errors. For instance, while attempting to protect the human dignity and safety of their clients, nurses should use their skills, knowledge, and expertise to ensure that the correct drugs are administered to the valid patient for the suitable indication at the right time and dosage. Similarly, medication errors can be reduced by nurses through the demonstration of competence and advocating for patients’ rights.

Identify four leadership qualities or traits that represent excellence in nursing

The ability to influence others towards the achievement of a common goal in nursing is a complex process that requires leadership traits such as communication skills, motivation, delegation, accountability, and constructive feedback (Major, 2019). These qualities are vital for a nurse as a leader at the bedside as well as within a nursing team or interdisciplinary team. As a leader at the bedside, a nurse can communicate effectively with his patients and staff to maintain good interpersonal relationships. Likewise, as a nurse leader, he can delegate bedside duties to his staff, motivate them and hold them accountable for their actions. Furthermore, as a leader within an interdisciplinary team, a nurse can use therapeutic and effective communication to foster collaboration within the team. Delegating duties and holding each party accountable is a key strategy to enhance the cohesiveness of the team (Major, 2019). The nurse leader should also be motivated towards the achievement of the team’s vision to influence other team members in a positive direction. Finally, the nurse leader should always be flexible and conduct periodic assessments to obtain feedback that can help improve the productivity of the team.

The work environment impacts one’s nursing leadership, decision-making, and professional development. The work environment is a site for a nurse leader to demonstrate his skills, knowledge, and attitudes in providing a structure that will enable his staff to carry out their functions effectively. If it is positive, it leads to staff satisfaction and motivation as well as loyalty (Wei et al., 2018). The work environment further influences decision-making. A well-equipped environment often contains the necessary resources and support necessary for ease and effective decision making. Likewise, a work environment that provides constructive feedback and criticism and encourages participation of all members in decision-making is likely to accrue better and more informed healthcare decisions. Finally, an environment that values skills, expertise, and experience is more likely to enhance professional development by organizing and implementing training and career development activities.


The overwhelming impact of nursing theories and historical figures in the modern nursing profession cannot be overstated. Regulatory bodies play a significant role in ensuring patient safety as well as quality patient care. Nursing leadership is a dynamic phenomenon that requires a harmonious integration of the leadership roles, leadership traits, and work environment. Finally, nurses should at all costs ensure patient safety as well as quality patient care.



Alligood, M. R. (2021). Nursing theorists and their work E-book (10th ed.). Elsevier.

Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2019). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, and management. Elsevier.

Chesterton, L., Tetley, J., Cox, N., & Jack, K. (2021). A hermeneutical study of professional accountability in nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing30(1–2), 188–199.

Grimes, A. (2019, October 15). Pennsylvania nursing license renewal. Wild Iris Medical Education.

Haddad, L. M., & Geiger, R. A. (2021). Nursing ethical considerations. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.

MacDonald, K., De Zylva, J., McAllister, M., & Brien, D. L. (2018). Heroism and nursing: A thematic review of the literature. Nurse Education Today68, 134–140.

Major, D. (2019). Developing effective nurse leadership skills. Nursing Standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain): 1987)34(6), 61–66.

Voet, M. A. (2020). The generic challenge: Understanding patents, FDA and pharmaceutical life-cycle management (sixth edition). Brown Walker Press.

Wei, H., Sewell, K. A., Woody, G., & Rose, M. A. (2018). The state of the science of nurse work environments in the United States: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Sciences5(3), 287–300.

The purpose of this task is to develop a working knowledge of nursing theory, nursing ethics, and professional accountability and apply these concepts to your professional clinical practice. You will be required to think about real-life scenarios and how they relate to nursing codes in your professional practice.

Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. An originality report is provided when you submit your task that can be used as a guide.

You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.


A. Identify a nursing theory that has influenced your values and goals.

1. Explain how nurses apply the identified theory from part A to implement excellent nursing practices.

2. Discuss how the identified theory from part A fits your professional practice.

B. Identify the contributions of two historical nursing figures in the nineteenth or twentieth century.

1. Compare the differences in contributions of the two historical figures identified in part B.

2. Describe how the contributions of the two historical figures influence your professional nursing practice.

C. Explain the functional differences between the State Board of Nursing and the American Nurses Association (ANA).

1. Define the roles of these two organizations.

2. Explain how these two organizations influence your nursing practice.

3. Explain the requirements for professional license renewal in your state.

a. Discuss the consequences of failure to maintain license requirements in your state.

4. Compare the differences between registered nursing license requirements in a compact state versus a non-compact state.

D. Discuss the functional differences between the Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (see the web links below).

1. Discuss how the two regulatory agencies influence your professional nursing practice.

a. Describe your role as a patient advocate in promoting safety when a patient has requested to use an alternative therapy.

E. Discuss the purposes of the Nurse Practice Act in your state and its impact on your professional practice.

1. Discuss the scope of practice for a RN in your state.

2. Discuss how your state defines delegation for the RN.

F. Apply each of the following roles to your professional practice:

• a scientist

• a detective

• a manager of the healing environment

G. Identify two provisions from the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (see web link below).

1. Analyze how the two provisions identified in part G influence your professional nursing practice.

2. Describe a nursing error that may occur in a clinical practice (e.g., clinical setting, skills lab, or simulation).

a. Explain how the ANA provisions identified in part G can be applied to the error discussed in part G2.


H. Identify four leadership qualities or traits that represent excellence in nursing.

1. Discuss the significance of the four leadership qualities identified in part H in the nurse’s role as each of the following:

• a leader at the bedside

• within a nursing team or interdisciplinary team

2. Identify how your work environment impacts the following:

• nursing leadership

• decision making

• professional development

I. Acknowledge sources, using APA-formatted in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.

J. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.

File Restrictions
File name may contain only letters, numbers, spaces, and these symbols: ! – _ . * \’ ( )
File size limit: 200 MB
File types allowed: doc, docx, rtf, xls, xlsx, ppt, pptx, odt, pdf, txt, qt, mov, mpg, avi, mp3, wav, mp4, wma, flv, asf, mpeg, wmv, m4v, svg, tif, tiff, jpeg, jpg, gif, png, zip, rar, tar, 7z

***This should be one of the sources if possible**
Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2019). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, and management (8th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.



3.4 Professional Responsibility in Promoting a Culture of SafetyPrint Section
Nurses must participate in the development, implementation, and review of and adherence to policies that promote patient health and safety, reduce errors and waste, and establish and sustain a culture of safety. When errors or near misses occur, nurses must follow institutional guidelines in reporting such events to the appropriate authority and must ensure responsible disclosure of errors to patients. Nurses must establish processes to investigate causes of errors or near misses and to address system factors that may have been contributory. While ensuring that nurses are held accountable for individual practice, errors should be corrected or remediated, and
disciplinary action taken only if warranted. When error occurs, whether it is one’s own or that of a coworker, nurses may neither participate in, nor condone through silence, any attempts to conceal the error.

Following the appropriate intra-institutional sequence of reporting to authority is critical to maintaining a safe patient care environment. Nurses must use the chain of authority when a problem or issue has grown beyond their problem-solving capacity or their scope of responsibility or authority. Issue reporting in a timely manner promotes a safe environment. Communication should start at the level closest to the event and should proceed to a responsive level as the situation warrants.

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