Psychiatric Diagnosis and Management: Adults Essay

Psychiatric Diagnosis and Management: Adults Essay

Psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners are essential members of the mental healthcare team. They can assess mentally ill patients, diagnose them, prescribe the appropriate treatment plan, and dispense medications. Psychiatric nurse practitioners frequently serve as educators to clients, relatives, medical coworkers, and societies, pushing the notion that mental health is a critical aspect of health care. A PMHNP’s involvement is critical in influencing how mental health care is seen and reducing stigmas connected with psychiatric care. PMHNPs must be good connection makers and collaborators in addition to being educators. Psychiatric nurses build close therapeutic relationships with their patients and their families. They also collaborate closely with other medical specialists to monitor patients’ progress.

A topic relevant to the roles of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners is the need to collaborate with physicians. PMHNPs can assess ad prescribe medications in mental healthcare just like physicians. However, several factors make it necessary for the PMHNPs to collaborate with the physicians to deliver quality and organized care to the patients. The topic was selected due to its relevance to the practice of the PMHNPs, especially the newly graduated employed PMHNPs. They have to be aware of the need to collaborate with physicians in their practice to improve patient s outcomes effectively. The novice PMHNPs face many challenges in their practice since they are being subjected to new roles requiring a physician’s guidance to assess, diagnose, and prescribe the correct medications to prevent medical errors (Kumar et al., 2020).

While all 50 states grant PMHNPs some degree of prescriptive jurisdiction, more than 20 states go a step further. They authorize PMHNPs, to diagnose, manage, order diagnostic tests, and administer medications to patients without the supervision of a physician, under the authorization of a state board of nursing. However, in some states, a practicing PMHNP must be under the supervision of a physician when evaluating a patient and prescribing medications. Although this approach may limit the practice of PMHNPs, the advantage is that it fosters collaboration in the healthcare team and limits medication errors.

A novice PMHNP entering into practice should be aware of the scope of practice in that state because it will guide the role and responsibilities of the PMHNP. Some states allow PMHNP to practice independently, while others require supervision from a physician. However, a novice PMHNP may have challenges making a clinical diagnosis and prescribing the appropriate medication for the specific diagnosis. They are prone to diagnosing and medication errors which can have detrimental effects on the patient and the practitioner. Therefore, they require collaborating with physicians to confirm their diagnosing and prescribing ability to prevent medical errors (Kumar et al., 2020).

The Complexity of Mental Health Care

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Collaborating with a physician as a novice PMHNP is a priority in mental health care. Mental health care has become complex due to the increased diversity of mental disorders and their treatment. Everyday research on new emerging mental disorders is conducted to determine the appropriate treatment. Therefore, the field has become complex requiring a multidisciplinary approach and comprehensive coordination and collaboration. A newly graduated PMHNP entering the practice has to effectively collaborate with physicians to understand the recently introduced medications to address the various mental health disorders. Recently, comorbidity has been common in mental health where people present with symptoms that reflect multiple disorders that must be managed effectively (Williams et al., 2019).

Managing mental disorders is complex and requires the collaboration of various healthcare personnel. Most disorders require different interventions to achieve the best outcomes, for example, a combination of psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and medications. A PMHNP may not be able to handle several patients using the various treatment therapies. The PMHNP will require collaborating with physicians to administer the various mental health treatment options. As a new PMHNP, one may not be conversant with the recent diagnostic criteria practiced in the working facility, hence requiring physicians’ guidance (Kumar et al., 2020).

Additionally, mental health care has become highly populated recently due to the increasing number of mental health cases, especially among young people. The mental facilities are highly populated with inpatient and outpatient services, requiring enough healthcare staff to attend to the patients. PMHNP are important since they assist in evaluating the patients and prescribing medications since, in most facilities, physicians care for few. In this case, they collaborate with the acting physician to help in assessing the incoming patients and prescribing medications. Therefore, in the case of a novice PMHNP, they will require to collaborate with the available physician to guide them in making a diagnosis and prescribing the proper medication (Winkler et al., 2020).

In the complexity of mental healthcare, so are interventions. For example, electroconvulsive therapy may require guidance ad collaboration of the healthcare workers to deliver the most quality care. A new PMHNP may not know how to physically handle the machine during the therapy. Therefore, they may need to collaborate with the available physician to have a session where they can watch the therapy before trying it on their own during treatment. Being a complex procedure, it may take several sessions with the supervising physician before some can be able to effectively use the therapy during treatment (Winkler et al., 2020).

New in Practice

A newly introduced PMHNP in the working area may not be competent enough to transfer the theory learned into practice, especially when the other healthcare workers expect quality work.   Considering the roles of a PMHNP, diagnosing, and treating mental disorders, once employed, the responsibilities are handed over. That means the PMHNP has to start the duties immediately, whether a new graduate or experienced personnel. Therefore, a novice PMHNP may need to collaborate with the physician in the working area to deliver the best care as expected. The PMHNP will need the physician to be introduced to the norms of the working area regarding the practices in the facility, which improve the outcomes of the patients.

Furthermore, many of the roles of PMHNP are similar to those of a physician. They can assess a patient, make a clinical diagnosis prescribe, and dispense medication like a physician. However, they need each other in the execution of their duties. Thus, a newly introduced PMHNP requires collaborating with the available healthcare staff, including the physicians, to deliver the best care. The novice PMHNP has to collaborate with the existing physicians in the workplace to plan how to assess patients without clashing or getting into fights about who should assess certain patients. They need to collaborate in planning patient care as the novice PMHNP is introduced into the practice. In addition, a new PMHNP may have the skills and knowledge to perform their responsibilities but must be guided by the physicians to use their knowledge and skills in the natural environment appropriately (Kumar et al., 2020).

Staff Shortage

The Healthcare system has been facing the challenge of staff shortage. With the emergence f many medical diseases, including mental disorders, healthcare organizations are experiencing healthcare staff shortages. The effects of staff shortage include poor quality care, burnout among the existing staff, and increased morbidity and mortality of patients. The mental health care staffs have to collaborate to deliver quality care to mentally ill patients. The collaboration will help make the work more accessible instead of individually, reducing staff burnout and offering quality care (Combes et al., 2018).

Physicians in healthcare facilities are few compared with the work they need to do. Therefore, employing the newly graduating PMHNP will help make the work easier by ensuring that the patients receive quality care, leading to positive health outcomes. In the presence of a few working physicians, the novice PMHNP can collaborate with them and deliver the best care to all the patients. the new PMHNP can work collaboratively with physicians and other healthcare staff to ensure that all patients receive quality care (Combes et al., 2018).

Due to staff shortages, many states have allowed PMHNPs to diagnose and treat mental health disorders. These states have faced the challenges of healthcare staff shortage, hence expanding the scope of practice of advanced nurses such as the PMHNPs. These practitioners can fill the physician shortage gap. They can also work collaboratively with the available physician such that one physician can work with two to three PMHNPs and deliver care adequately. The physician shortage will be filled hence quality healthcare services. Therefore, there is a need for the PMHNPs to collaborate with the available physicians to provide the best care (Combes et al., 2018).

In addition, mentally ill patients requiring physician care have increased. According to Winkler et al. (2020), the prevalence of mental disorders increased during coronavirus because of the psychological effects of the disease. Isolation, quarantine, and stay-at-home orders made it impossible for people to socialize, increasing the risk of mental disorders. Therefore, the current mental health issues are many and require healthcare services. Therefore, there is a need for the PMHNPs to collaborate with physicians to treat many mental disorders (Combes et al., 2018).

However, advanced nursing practices are new in the healthcare system since they have been recently introduced in some states due to healthcare staff shortages and to expand the competencies of nurses. They have to undergo some training to diagnose and prescribe medications. Despite the training, they have to work collaboratively with physicians since they almost do the same work to bring order to the healthcare system instead of competition. In addition, collaboration with the physician will help advance their pharmacological competency, thus enabling them to make a correct diagnosis and prescribe the correct medications. When they collaborate during care provision, quality care will result (Combes et al., 2018).



Some states have recently introduced PMHNP into the healthcare system and are new in the area. These regulations demand that PMHNPs work under supervision and in collaboration with physicians. Others are not allowed to even prescribe or order diagnostic tests without the evidence of the collaborating physician, which limits their practice. In these states, the collaboration between a PMHNP and a physician is mandatory since it’s a requirement from the board regulations on advanced nursing practices. There is an agreement form that has to be filled by the novice PMHNP and the collaborating physician as evidence that they are working together and the PMHNP is not working alone and going against the requirements of the Board.

An example is New Jersey State. The APRNs must be certified by the New Jersey Board of Nursing to practice in the State. They must also collaborate with physicians to deliver care while adhering to legal guidelines. The primary goal of the New Jersey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse regulation is to remove legal impediments to practice by encouraging professional collaboration and raising knowledge of the APRN scope of practice (American Nurses Association, n.d.). The fundamental goal is for APRNs and other nurses to conduct evidence-based practice to improve patient outcomes without being hampered by policies.

In addition, Georgia is also affected by regulations that dictate their collaboration with a physician as a requirement. The Board of Nursing in Georgia is the regulatory authority for advanced practice registered nurses, including the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. The boards oversee education, the granting and renewal of practice licenses, disciplinary procedures, and practice area. PMHNPs must hold a valid nursing license before practicing as a nurse practitioner in Georgia. A protocol agreement must be established between the nurse practitioner and the actively supervising physician. Because the nurse practitioner must report to the supervising physician, supervision requirements must be set.

Furthermore, the regulations deprive APRNs of the ability to prescribe drugs or request diagnostic testing. Nursing practice limits limit the expansion of nursing practice through innovations and limit nursing experience, abilities, and practice (Neff et al., 2018). Despite the disadvantages, the PMHNPs working in this State must comply with the regulations and work collaboratively with the physicians to avoid facing the consequences of going against the requirement. Therefore, a novice PMHNP working in this State must know that they should collaborate with a physician.

These regulations offer guidance to the practice of all nurses, including the advanced ones such as the PMHNPs. If working in a particular state, a novice PMHNP must know their practice regulations. If the regulations require collaboration with a physician, the PMHNP must know before starting the practice. However, some facilities have few physicians and many nurses. The shortage may tempt the facility to allow the advanced nurses, such as the PMHNPs, to work independently, costing their practicing license. Therefore, the newly employed PMHNP must know their scope of practice and look for a physician to collaborate with such a situation (Neff et al., 2018).

New Environment

Novice PMHNPs have challenges in the new environment since it is their first time working as PMHNPs. They have to associate and professionally collaborate with the physicians to know how the work is done in that organization to adapt to it quickly. They may find it hard to function maximally and give quality care without adaption. They need a physician who has been working in the facility for some time to help them in their practice until they adapt (Urbanowicz, 2019).

Furthermore, in the new environment, other healthcare staff may not trust their work; hence, they may need someone to cross-check their diagnosing and prescription competency before being allowed to do the work on their own. This will help them improve their skills and collaboration and promote teamwork. Trusting their competency will be increased when collaborating with physicians to assess patients to determine their diagnosis and administer the proper medication (Urbanowicz, 2019).

Additionally, they are transiting to new practices which require guidance in diagnosing and prescribing medication. During the transition, healthcare workers may not be able to manage on their own without guidance and supervision. In most facilities, novice healthcare staff are assigned a superior supervisor whom they will work with until they can manage independently. The collaborating physician must be satisfied with the competency and skills of the new PMHNPs before they can allow them to practice alone. Therefore, in this case, the novice PMHNP must collaborate effectively with the assigned physician by being present in every assessment and maximally contributing to the diagnostic process. This will make them adapt fast, enhance their diagnostic skills, and make clinical decisions effectively even without the physician’s presence (Urbanowicz, 2019).

Care coordination

Care coordination involves organizing all the care activities related to a specific patient and disseminating the patients’ information to all involved participants to promote patients’ safety and provide adequate care. The aim is to effectively meet all the patients’ needs and provide high-quality care. It will increase the level of patients’ satisfaction and experience. To coordinate care, a PMHNP must collaborate with the involved stakeholders in patient care to provide high-value care. Some of the activities in care coordination include helping in the transition of care, communicating and sharing knowledge among the participants and the patients to ensure quality care is provided, and promoting teamwork. In the case of a novice PMHNP, they must learn the importance of coordinated care, how it is done and how collaboration with a physician promotes its efficiency (Boeijen et al., 2020).

According to Williams et al. (2019), one of the importance of coordinated care is that the physician to whom the patient is referred is aware of the patient’s needs, hence planning the care to give the patient. PMHNPs refer cases requiring specialty and complex care to physicians. Therefore, the referral physicians have to plan the care the patients need if the information is communicated in advance by the referring PMHNP. Due to this importance, the collaboration between the PMHNP and the physician is required to effectively provide quality care and meet all the needs of the patients in time. Coordinated care has been an essential aspect of the healthcare system due to its importance hence improving health experiences and outcomes among the patients. The novice PMHNP must understand care coordination through collaboration with the physicians hence the importance of their collaboration (Rosen et al., 2018).

Care coordination is essential in healthcare as it helps provide high-quality care. Every healthcare facility aims to provide quality care to patients to promote faster and complete recovery. In mental healthcare, quality care involves collaboration between the healthcare team to prevent disjointed care. A PMHNP and a physician in mental healthcare have to collaborate to provide joint care, increasing the quality of their services. Their collaboration help makes the best clinical decisions, such as treatment options and referral, which help improve care coordination in the facility. As a newly employed PMHNP, collaboration is needed to avoid disjointed care, affecting care coordination (Boeijen et al., 2020).


Teamwork involves the collaboration of multidisciplinary personnel. According to Rosen et al. (2018), suboptimal teamwork in healthcare is a public health issue. Providing high-quality and safe health care services is reliable on teamwork in the facility. Poor teamwork leads to patient harm, which negatively affects the performance of healthcare organizations. One of the requirements in teamwork is communication. Therefore, the PMHNP and the physician must communicate effectively concerning the most effective diagnosis and the patient’s treatment plan to treat the patient effectively. This can only be possible if there is teamwork between the physician and PMHNP instead of leaving work to one individual, leading to fragmented care (Ndibu Muntu Keba Kebe et al., 2019).

Teamwork is vital in tackling complex healthcare problems and in treatment planning. Healthcare organizations encourage teamwork since one practitioner may not be able to make all the clinical decisions. Sharing ideas among the team members leads to faster handling of clinical problems, which may be complex. For example, a novice PMHNP may face many complex clinical decisions that may require critical thinking to handle. In this case, collaboration and working as a team with the physician will make the work easier and promote better outcomes. Working as a team will make it easy to diagnose and plan the treatment of a patient, effectively promoting high-quality care services. Therefore, a novice PMHNP should see the need to work as a team instead of independently in their practice (Rosen et al., 2018).

Importance of Collaboration

According to Ndibu Muntu Keba Kebe et al. (2019), collaboration benefits mental health professionals. One of the benefits is a reduction in clinical errors. Human is to err, and so are medical practitioners. No one is perfect since many factors can make a practitioner make clinical errors during practice, such as psychological barriers and distractions. A PMHNP does not have all the knowledge and skills to diagnose and prescribe medications to mentally ill patients. They need assistance from a physician to make a correct diagnosis and treatment plan. Some conditions are complex and lead to many differential diagnoses. Narrowing the diagnosis to form a single diagnosis requires critical thinking and expertise to avoid making a diagnostic error and administering the wrong medications. A novice PMHNP has the skills but does not have the experience necessary to develop the correct diagnosis. In this case, a physician will be of great importance in making the correct diagnosis. The novice PMHNP, when collaborating with the physician, will be able to avoid medication errors by consulting the physician in case of a challenging situation, thus offering quality care (Boeijen et al., 2020).

Collaboration is vital in making a sound clinical decision. When faced with a clinical dilemma, especially when there are conflicting differential diagnoses, the collaboration between the PMHNP and the physician will help make the best decision. The collaborating parties bring ideas together and share ideas to narrow down to agree on the best decision to make. Although it may be time-consuming, the positive effects outweigh the risks of making a poor clinical decision. The outcomes are positive, which improves the quality of care provided in the facility. A novice PMHNP can benefit from collaboration since they may not be experienced enough to make decisions when faced with challenging mental health disorders. Sharing of knowledge enables novice PMHNP to learn and improve their skills to handle similar situations effectively in the future. Therefore, there is a need for physicians and the PMHNP to collaborate to promote effective clinical decision-making. The result is the provision of quality care and positive patient outcomes (Boeijen et al., 2020).

In addition, collaboration is an important aspect, especially in new PMHNPs. They learn to form the physician they are working with, thus improving their expertise. They can also be motivated in their work to promote their performance. Job satisfaction can be enhanced by effective collaboration, especially for novice PMHNPs. They need to work collaboratively with physicians to enhance their skills, learn new strategies from the physicians, and become expertise (O’Connor, 2019). Their performance can be enhanced through effective collaboration since they will be motivated to work hard to prevent errors through the physician’s guidance. Furthermore, improved decision-making competency, pharmacological competency, and support from the collaborating physician enhance job satisfaction, motivation, and general performance. Staff turnover s also reduced by the effective collaboration between the PMHNP and the physician (Ndibu Muntu Keba Kebe et al., 2019).

According to Mangano et al. (2020), new PMHNP faces many challenges in their practice. One of the challenges is demonstrating psychopharmacological competency during drug prescription. Being new in the practice, they may make mistakes or have a challenge in prescribing the n=best drug for a specific mental disorder. Due to a lack of clinical experience, they find it hard to determine which medication works best in treating a particular mental disorder. In this case, support from physicians and working collaboratively with them help improve their psychopharmacological competency. Therefore, new PMHNPs should collaborate with the physicians to develop psychopharmacological prescription skills and knowledge (Rosen et al., 2018).


As a new PMHNP, there are various steps that the new PMHNP can take in healthcare to enhance collaboration and improve their practice. One of them is getting feedback from the collaborating physician. The new PMHNP should seek feedback from the physician on the final diagnosis decision for reinforcement if the diagnosis is accurate or recalibration if it is erroneous. Feedback is essential because it will help novice PMHNP improve their clinical judgment, make the correct diagnosis, administer correct drugs and promote patient safety. They should also collaborate with the physician, get a chance to assess patients, and make clinical impressions solely. They should then consult the physician to determine the effectiveness of their diagnostic skills and prescription and get corrections from the physician. This way, they will improve their skills and promote patients outcomes (O’Connor, 2019).

The other option is deliberate practice, in which new practitioners should put in more training, effort, and reflection on their approach to building exceptional diagnostic reasoning skills (Rogers & Steinke, 2022). As a new PMHNP, it requires personal enthusiasm and deliberate practice to enhance diagnostic and prescription skills without making errors. This is where the novice PMHNP practice independently, participate during physicians’ patient assessment and take notes on how it is done from the expertise. The act is a good step in improving one’s skills in practice. Developing expertise skills is possible through collaboration with the experts and participating in their practice. Therefore, the new PMHNP should be vigilant and self-driven to collaborate with the available physician to enhance their practice skills and become an expert in the field.

Another recommendation is to look into more metacognition possibilities for detecting and correcting incipient diagnostic mistakes (Rogers & Steinke, 2022). Critical thinking requires metacognition which is vital in making a clinical diagnosis. However, correcting the incorrect diagnostic mistakes can be done by using metacognition. Therefore, new practitioners should thoroughly assess the diagnosis and consider other possibilities. They should also consult the collaborating physician for other options before making a treatment plan (Boeijen et al., 2020).


As I approach my new role as a new PMHNP, this literature is important to me since it will help me understand collaboration in healthcare, factors that enhance collaboration, and its importance. For example, the literature will help me know that collaboration is essential as it facilitates effective clinical decision-making, prevents medical errors, promotes patient safety, and enhances patient outcomes. Through collaboration, I can improve my skills, get motivated to work, have job satisfaction, and improve my performance. Furthermore, this literature is vital in teaching me that healthcare factors demand me to collaborate with the physician, such as staff shortage, where there is a lot of work to be completed, and collaboration can help overcome burnout.

Additionally, the literature helps me understand that regulations are essential and should be adhered to. For example, in states such as Georgia, PMHNPs are not allowed to work alone but collaborate with physicians during the diagnosis and prescription of medicines. In this, I know that I should first understand the requirements of the governing body in the State I will be working in since they differ in terms of regulations (Neff et al., 2018). The literature will also help me know the strategies to use as a new PMHNP in collaborating with the physician to enhance my practicing skills. I should frequently seek feedback from the collaborating physician to develop my expertise and skills in the field.

Furthermore, the literature helps understand how collaboration can help provide quality care, improve care coordination, and improve patient outcomes. This can be possible by putting efforts together as a team, avoiding competition in the workplace, and sharing knowledge. The shared and integrated knowledge help improve the skills of the new practitioners, encourage them in practice and enable them to become experts. I have learned that practical communication skills are necessary for collaboration, and professional interaction should always be maintained for effective performance. In addition, I have learned that through collaboration with a physician, effective clinical decisions are made, contributing to effective patient treatment and improved patient experience and satisfaction (Boeijen et al., 2020).

Steps in Preparation to Enter Practice

When a new PMHNP is entering the practice, there are steps to take. One of them is knowing the regulation of the State the person is employed. Different states have different regulations governing the PMHNP practice. They determine whether they should diagnose and prescribe medication alone or under the supervision of the collaborating physician, which is a requirement. Therefore, understanding the background information on the State regulation the PMHNP will work in is necessary to avoid consequences such as license withdrawal (Neff et al., 2018). Another step is to have a good relationship with physicians and collaborate with them during patient assessment instead of competing with them in terms of knowledge and skills. The new PMHNP should be ready to learn from the physician’s expertise to improve their skills. Another step is getting feedback from the collaborating physicians. They should consult them to avoid making incorrect clinical decisions which lead to medication errors. Feedback will help the new PMHNP improve skills and develop psychopharmacological competency. The new PMHNP should also have good communication and professional interaction skills as they enter the practice to communicate well with the patients and the physicians to promote effective collaboration (O’Connor, 2019).


Psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners have the riles of diagnosing, ordering diagnostic tests, and prescribing a mentally ill patient’s appropriate treatment plan. They need to work collaboratively with physicians since they almost perform the same duties. However, the physicians have increased knowledge and skills in their practice; hence PMHNPs can benefit more through collaborating with them in the workplace. Staff shortage, regulations, care coordination, and teamwork enable PMHNPs to collaborate with other healthcare professionals, including physicians, to deliver quality care. The Healthcare system aims to provide high-quality care and improve patients outcomes. It can be possible through teamwork and collaboration in healthcare since conflicts and competition among healthcare workers reduce the quality of healthcare services and the overall performance of the healthcare system.



American Nurses Association. (n.d.). ANA enterprise. Retrieved September 20, 2018, from

Boeijen, E.,  Laurant, M., Sitvast, J., van Meijel, B., van Vught, A. (2021). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioners in the Role of Coordinating Practitioners: A Survey Study. Int Journal of Nursing Health Care Research 04: 1243. DOI: 10.29011/2688-9501.101243

Combes, J. B., Elliott, R. F., & Skåtun, D. (2018). Hospital staff shortage: the role of the competitiveness of pay of different groups of nursing staff on staff shortage. Applied Economics, 50(60), 6547-6552.

Kumar, A., Kearney, A., Hoskins, K., & Iyengar, A. (2020). The role of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners in improving mental and behavioral health care delivery for children and adolescents in multiple settings. Archives Of Psychiatric Nursing, 34(5), 275–280.

Mangano, E., Gonzalez, Y., & Kverno, K. S. (2020). Challenges Faced by New Psychiatric–Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Prescribers. Journal Of Psychosocial Nursing And Mental Health Services, 58(10), 7-11.

Ndibu Muntu Keba Kebe, N., Chiocchio, F., Bamvita, J. M., & Fleury, M. J. (2019). Profiling mental health professionals in relation to perceived interprofessional collaboration on teams. SAGE Open Medicine, 7, 2050312119841467.

Neff, D. F., Yoon, S. H., Steiner, R. L., Bumbach, M. D., Everhart, D., & Harman J. S. (2018). The impact of nurse practitioner regulations on population access to care. Nursing Outlook, 66(4), 379–385.

O’Connor, W. (2019). Benefits of Interprofessional Collaboration in Healthcare. Retreived from

Rogers, M., & Steinke, M. (2022). An examination of student nurse practitioners’ diagnostic reasoning skills. International Journal of Nursing Practice, e13043.

Rosen, M. A., DiazGranados, D., Dietz, A. S., Benishek, L. E., Thompson, D., Pronovost, P. J., & Weaver, S. J. (2018). Teamwork in healthcare: Key discoveries enabling safer, high-quality care. American Psychologist, 73(4), 433. PMCID: PMC6361117

Urbanowicz, J. (2019). APRN transition to practice: Program development tips. The Nurse Practitioner, 44(12), 50-55. doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000605520.88939.d1

Williams, M. D., Asiedu, G. B., Finnie, D., Neely, C., Egginton, J., Finney Rutten, L. J., & Jacobson, R. M. (2019). Sustainable care coordination: a qualitative study of primary care provider, administrator, and insurer perspectives. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 92.

Winkler, P., Formanek, T., Mlada, K., Kagstrom, A., Mohrova, Z., Mohr, P., & Csemy, L. (2020). Increase in prevalence of current mental disorders in the context of COVID-19: analysis of repeated nationwide cross-sectional surveys. Epidemiology And Psychiatric Sciences, 29.


Appendix E: PMHNP Role Paper 150 points

Assignment Description

Students use evidence-based literature to develop a paper on a topic that is relevant to their future roles as a psychiatric & mental health nurse practitioner. The paper identifies an issue from the literature and then identifies and summarizes the evidence addressing it. The paper includes a critical thinking exercise reflecting on the literature and its application to the PMHNP role, developing recommendations for the novice PMHNP who is entering practice, and a course of action for the new PMHNP (Course Objectives 1-7).

Assignment Objectives The student will: 1. Demonstrate appropriate evidence-based practice and knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of the psychiatric and mental health nurse practitioner;

  1. Think critically about the literature and how it is applicable to the new PMHNP;
  2. Develop recommendations and a course of action;
  3. Demonstrate appropriate documentation and dissemination of knowledge via a written assignment; and
  4. Demonstrate the use of technology to achieve learning goals.

Assignment Steps To complete this assignment:

  1. From the readings, select a topic that is of interest to you regarding the roles and responsibilities of the professional psychiatric and mental health nurse practitioner. These can range from the need for collaboration with a physician, pitfalls of electronic health record, billing issues, or the use of guidelines, for example. Include a description of why this was selected. ( CHOOSE TOPIC FROM THIS LIST)
  2. Identify recent literature in the past 5 years that addresses the selected topic. Synthesize this literature to demonstrate knowledge of what is recently known.
  3. Based on your critical thinking of the literature synthesis, develop a reflection about how this is relevant to the new PMHNP entering practice and write an action plan for the novice PMHNP for how to incorporate this into their transition into practice.
  4. Use APA 7 th to format the assignment.

* Please write on The need for collaboration with a physician including a description of why this was selected


Assignment Evaluation The following rubric will be used to evaluate this assignment. Points will be awarded for completeness of information, clarity, logical flow of ideas, application of theory, and critical thinking.

  1. Element Points Topic 10 : Identification of the topic that is relevant to the role of the PMHNP entering practice & why it was selected.
  2. Literature 20 : Identification of literature within the past 5 years that addresses the topic.
  3. Synthesis 30 : Synthesis of the identified literature and summary of its relevance to the novice PMHNP.
  4. Reflection 30: Personal statements of how this literature is relevant to you as you approach your role as a new PMHNP.
  5. Recommendation 30 : Recommendation for the new PMHNP facing this issue based on the evidence.
  6. Action Plan 20: Appropriate steps for the new PMHNP to take to prepare for entering practice as relevant to this topic.
  7. Mechanics 10 : Uses APA 7th formatting for student assignments; appropriate use of headings; no grammar, spelling, or formatting errors. Total 150

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